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All Types Of Fractures

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Diagnosis And Treatment :

  • Physical examination
  • Identify signs and symptoms
  • X-ray generally sufficient to diagnose
  • MRI or CT scan is also suggested in few cases like fracture maxilla

Treatment Depend On

  • Fractured bone
  • Type of fracture
  • Displacement of bone and associated soft tissue injury
  • Age of patient
  • Associated head injury / chest injury/ abdominal injury if any

Immobilization :

  • Plaster casts or plastic functional braces - these hold the bone in position until it has healed.
  • Metal plates and screws - current procedures may use minimally invasive techniques.
  • Intra-medullary nails - internal metal rods are placed down the center of long bones. Flexible wires may be used in children.
  • External fixators - these may be made of metal or carbon fiber; they have steel pins that go into the bone directly through the skin. They are a type of scaffolding outside the body.
  • Joint replacement or semi joint replacement - advised in old patients as bones are osteoporotic

Usually, the fractured bone area is immobilized for 2-8 weeks. The duration depends on which bone is affected and whether there are any complications, such as a blood supply problem or an infection.

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Healing -

if a broken bone has been aligned properly and kept immobile, the healing process is usually straightforward.

  • Patient's age
  • Which bone is affected
  • Type of fracture
  • Patient's general health

These factors influence how rapidly the bone heals. If the patient smokes regularly, the healing process will take longer.

Physiotherapy / Physical Therapy -

after the bone has healed, it may be necessary to restore muscle strength as well as mobility to the affected area. If the fracture occurred near or through a joint, there is a risk of permanent stiffness or arthritis - the individual may not be able to bend that joint as well as before.

Physiotherapy is equally important -

to gain functional ability of muscles. Patient can get good mobility.

Treatment of associated injuries -

head injury, chest injury, injury to lung, tendon injury, skin injury also needed


Heals in the wrong position fracture heals in the wrong position or it shifts (the fracture itself shifts).

Disruption of bone growth - if a childhood bone fracture affects the growth plate, there is a risk that the normal development of that bone may be affected, raising the risk of a subsequent deformity.

Persistent bone or bone marrow infection - if there is a break in the skin, as may happen with a compound fracture, bacteria can get in and infect the bone or bone marrow, which can become a persistent infection (chronic osteomyelitis). Patients may need to be hospitalized and treated with antibiotics. Sometimes, surgical drainage and curettage is required.

Bone death (avascular necrosis) - if the bone loses its essential supply of blood it may die.

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Prevention :

Nutrition and sunlight - the human body needs adequate supplies of calcium for healthy bones. Milk, cheese, yoghurt, and dark green leafy vegetables are good sources of calcium. Our body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium - exposure to sunlight, as well as eating eggs and oily fish are good ways of getting vitamin D.

Physical activity - the more weight-bearing exercises you do, the stronger and denser your bones will be. Examples include skipping, walking, running, and dancing - any exercise where the body pulls on the skeleton. Older age not only results in weaker bones, but often in less physical activity, which further increases the risk of even weaker bones. It is important for people of all ages to stay physically active.

Menopause - estrogen, which regulates a woman's calcium, drops during menopause, making calcium regulation much more difficult. Consequently, women need to be especially careful about the density and strength of their bones during and after the menopause. The following steps may help reduce post-menopausal osteoporosis risk:

  • Do several short weight-bearing exercise sessions each week.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Consume only moderate quantities of alcohol, or don't drink it.
  • Get adequate exposure to daylight.
  • Make sure your diet has plenty of calcium-rich foods. For those who find this difficult, a doctor may recommend calcium supplements.

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